Grace Murray Hopper was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer and the developer of the first compiler for a computer programming language. She was also a United States Navy rear admiral and, at the end of her service, the oldest serving officer in the United States Navy.


1. Chips Magazine. 2011. About Grace Hopper. (June 27, 2011). Retrieved 5 July 2017 from

2. Schieber, Philip. 1987. The Wit and Wisdom of Grace Hopper. The OCLC Newsletter, No. 167, March/April, 1987.

3. Wikiquote. 2017. Grace Hopper. (June 9, 2017). Retrieved 5 July 2017 from


UF1Figure. It's easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission [1]. You manage things, you lead people [2]. [The Computer] was the first machine man built that assisted the power of his brain instead of the strength of his arm [3] Humans are allergic to change. They love to say, "We've always done it this way." I try to fight that. That's why I have a clock on my wall that runs counter-clockwise [2].

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